Darknet market

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Template:Short description A darknet market or cryptomarket is a commercial website on the web that operates via darknets such as Tor or I2P.<ref name="guardian">Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> They function primarily as black markets, selling or brokering transactions involving drugs, cyber-arms,<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> weapons, counterfeit currency, stolen credit card details,<ref>Template:Cite paper</ref> forged documents, unlicensed pharmaceuticals,<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> steroids,<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> and other illicit goods as well as the sale of legal products.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In December 2014, a study by Gareth Owen from the University of Portsmouth suggested the second most popular sites on Tor were darknet markets.<ref name=jb>Template:Cite news</ref>

Following on from the model developed by Silk Road, contemporary markets are characterised by their use of darknet anonymised access (typically Tor), bitcoin payment with escrow services, and eBay-like vendor feedback systems.<ref name="febEMCDDA" />Template:Pie chart

History[edit]

1970s to 2011[edit]

Though e-commerce on the dark web only started around 2006, illicit goods were among the first items to be transacted using the internet, when in the early 1970s students at Stanford University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology used what was then called the ARPANET to coordinate the purchase of cannabis.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> By the end of the 1980s, newsgroups like alt.drugs would become online centres of drug discussion and information; however, any related deals were arranged entirely off-site directly between individuals.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> With the development and popularization of the World Wide Web and e-commerce in the 1990s, the tools to discuss or conduct illicit transactions became more widely available. One of the better-known web-based drug forums, The Hive, launched in 1997, serving as an information sharing forum for practical drug synthesis and legal discussion. The Hive was featured in a Dateline NBC special called The "X" Files in 2001, bringing the subject into public discourse.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> From 2003, the "Research Chemical Mailing List" (RCML) would discuss sourcing "Research Chemicals" from legal and grey sources as an alternative to forums such as alt.drugs.psychedelics. However Operation Web Tryp led to a series of website shut downs and arrests in this area.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

Since the year 2000, some of the emerging cyber-arms industry operates online, including the Eastern European "Cyber-arms Bazaar", trafficking in the most powerful crimeware and hacking tools.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In the 2000s, early cybercrime and carding forums such as ShadowCrew experimented with drug wholesaling on a limited scale.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

The Farmer's Market was launched in 2006 and moved onto Tor in 2010. It was closed and several operators and users arrested in April 2012 as a result of Operation Adam Bomb, a two-year investigation led by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration.<ref name = "schwartz">Template:Cite web</ref> It has been considered a "proto-Silk Road" but the use of payment services such as PayPal and Western Union allowed law enforcement to trace payments and it was subsequently shut down by the FBI in 2012.<ref name="Power2013">Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Silk Road and early markets[edit]

The first pioneering marketplace to use both Tor and Bitcoin escrow was Silk Road, founded by Ross Ulbricht under pseudonym "Dread Pirate Roberts" in February 2011.<ref name=dbvc>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Public statement from a Silk Road spokesperson 1 March 2011.</ref> In June 2011, Gawker published an article about the site,<ref name="GawkerChen">Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> which led to "Internet buzz"<ref name="one"/> and an increase in website traffic.<ref name="dbvc"/> This in turn led to political pressure from Senator Chuck Schumer on the US DEA and Department of Justice to shut it down,<ref name="SecNarc">Template:Cite news</ref> which they finally did in October 2013 after a lengthy investigation.<ref name="complaint1">Template:Cite web</ref> Silk Road's use of all of Tor, Bitcoin escrow and feedback systems would set the standard for new darknet markets for the coming years.<ref>Template:Cite AV media</ref> The shutdown was described by news site DeepDotWeb as "the best advertising the dark net markets could have hoped for" following the proliferation of competing sites this caused,<ref name="double"/> and The Guardian predicted others would take over the market that Silk Road previously dominated.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

The months and years after Silk Road's closure would be marked by a greatly increased number of shorter-lived markets as well as semi-regular law enforcement take downs, hacks, scams and voluntary closures.

Atlantis, the first site to accept Litecoin as well as Bitcoin, closed in September 2013, just prior to the Silk Road raid, leaving users just 1 week to withdraw any coins.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref name=green1113 /> In October 2013, Project Black Flag closed and stole their users' bitcoins in the panic shortly after Silk Road's shut down.<ref name=green1113>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> Black Market Reloaded's popularity increased dramatically after the closure of Silk Road and Sheep Marketplace;<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> however, in late November 2013, the owner of Black Market Reloaded announced that the website would be taken offline due to the unmanageable influx of new customers this caused.<ref name=forbes1>Template:Cite news</ref> Sheep Marketplace, which launched in March 2013, was one of the lesser known sites to gain popularity with Silk Road's closure.<ref name=luxury>Template:Cite web</ref> Not long after those events, in December 2013, it ceased operation after two Florida men stole $6 million worth of users' Bitcoins.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref name="jeffries">Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="bbc 12-02">Template:Cite news</ref><ref name="techienews">Template:Cite web</ref>

Post-Silk Road to present[edit]

From late 2013 through to 2014, new markets started launching with regularity, such as the Silk Road 2.0, run by the former Silk Road site administrators as well as the Agora marketplace.<ref name="agoraupdate" /><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Such launches were not always a success; in February 2014 Utopia,<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> the highly anticipated market based on Black Market Reloaded,<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> opened only to shut down 8 days later following rapid actions by Dutch law enforcement.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> February 2014 also marked the short lifespans of Black Goblin Market and CannabisRoad, two sites which closed after being demonized without much effort.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

November 2014 briefly shook the darknet market ecosystem, when Operation Onymous, executed by the United States' FBI and UK's National Crime Agency, led to the seizure of 27 hidden sites, including Silk Road 2.0, one of the largest markets at the time,<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> as well 12 smaller markets and individual vendor sites.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> By September 2014, Agora was reported to be the largest market, avoiding Operation Onymous, and Template:As of has gone on to be the largest overall marketplace<ref name="dca" /> with more listings than the Silk Road at its height.<ref name="agoraupdate">Andy Greenberg. "Drug Market 'Agora' Replaces the Silk Road as King of the Dark Net". Wired, 2 September 2014.</ref>

2015 would feature market diversification and further developments around escrow and decentralisation.

In March 2015 the Evolution marketplace performed an "exit scam", stealing escrowed bitcoins worth $12 million, half of the ecosystem's listing market share at that time.<ref name="evo">Template:Cite news</ref> The closure of Evolution led to a users redistributing to Black Bank and Agora. However Black Bank, which Template:As of captured 5% of the darknet market's listings, announced on May 18, 2015 its closure for "maintenance"<ref name="blackbank">Template:Cite news</ref> before disappearing in a similar scam.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Following these events commentators suggested that further market decentralization could be required, such as the service OpenBazaar, in order to protect buyers and vendors from this risk in the future as well as more widespread support from "multi-sig" cryptocurrency payments.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name="blog.openbazaar.org">Template:Cite news</ref>

In April, TheRealDeal, the first open cyber-arms market for software exploits as well as drugs, launched to the interest of computer security experts.<ref name="realdeal">Template:Cite news</ref> In May varied DDOS attacks were performed against different markets including TheRealDeal. The market owners set up a phishing website to get the attacker's password, and subsequently revealed collaboration between the attacker and the administrator of Mr Nice Guy's market who was also planning to scam his users.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> This information was revealed to news site DeepDotWeb.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

On July 31, the Italian police in conjunction with Europol shut down the Italian language Babylon darknet market seizing 11,254 Bitcoin wallet addresses and 1 million euros.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

At the end of August, the leading marketplace Agora announced its imminent temporary closure after reporting suspicious activity on their server, suspecting some kind of deanonymisation bug in Tor.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

By October 2015, AlphaBay was recognized as the largest market.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> From then on, through to 2016 there was a period of extended stability for the markets, until in April when the large Nucleus marketplace collapsed for unknown reasons, taking escrowed coins with it.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

On the 28th of April, investigations into the Italian Darknet Community (IDC) forum-based marketplace led to a number of key arrests.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

In May 2017, the Bloomsfield market closed after investigations in Slovakia inadvertently led to the arrests of its operators.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> Later that month, the long-lived Outlaw market closed down citing a major bitcoin cryptocurrency wallet theft; however, speculation remained that it was an exit scam.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

In July 2017 the markets experienced their largest disruptions since Operations Onymous, when Operation Bayonet culminated in coordinated multinational seizures of both the Hansa and leading AlphaBay markets, sparking worldwide law enforcement investigations.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> The seizures brought in lots of traffic to other markets making TradeRoute and Dream Market the most popular markets at the time. In January 2018, Dream Market added Bitcoin Cash as a payment option.

In October 2017, TradeRoute exit-scammed shortly after being hacked and extorted.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

In June 2018, the digital security organization Digital Shadows reported that, due to the climate of fear and mistrust after the closure of AlphaBay and Hansa, darknet market activity was switching away from centralized marketplace websites and towards alternatives such as direct chat on Telegram, or decentralized marketplaces like OpenBazaar.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Currently (2019-present) Dream Market holds the title as the most popular market by far, with over 120000 current trade listings. Dream Market is followed by the controversial 'Wall Street Market' (rumored to be ran by 'Dread', a known exit-scammer), with under 10000 listings<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>. Due to the popularity of Dream, people have been speculating that the recent DDOS attacks which have crippled Dream Market's servers have been executed by competitors struggling to compete against the so-called monopoly.

Market features[edit]

Search and discussion[edit]

One of the central<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> discussion forums is Reddit's /r/DarkNetMarkets/,<ref name="yahoo">Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> which have been the subject of legal investigation, as well as the Tor-based discussion forum, The Hub. On March 21, 2018, Reddit administrators shut down the popular subreddit /r/DarkNetMarkets citing new changes to their content policy that forbids the sale of "Drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, or any controlled substances."<ref name="Reddit Announcements">Template:Cite news</ref><ref name="DarkNetMarkets Shut Down">Template:Cite news</ref> Many market places maintain their own dedicated discussion forums and subreddits.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The majority of the marketplaces are in English, but some are opening up in Chinese, Russian, and Ukrainian.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

The dedicated market search engine Grams allows the searching of multiple markets directly without login or registration.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

Dark web news and review sites such as DeepDotWeb<ref name="yahoo"/><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> and All Things Vice provide exclusive interviews and commentary into the dynamic markets.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> Uptime and comparison services such as DNStats<ref name="evo2">Template:Cite news</ref> provide sources of information about active markets as well as suspected scams and law enforcement activity. Due to the decentralized nature of these markets, phishing and scam sites are often maliciously or accidentally referenced.<ref name="phishing">Template:Cite news</ref>

After discovering the location of a market, a user must register on the site, sometimes with a referral link, after which they can browse listings. A further PIN may be required to perform transactions, better protecting users against login credential compromise.<ref name="dic" />

Customer interactions[edit]

File:Silk road payment.jpg
Flowchart of The Silk Road's payment system, produced as evidence in the trial of its owner.

Transactions typically use Bitcoin<ref name="guardian" /> for payment, sometimes combined with tumblers<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> for added anonymity and PGP to secure communications between buyers and vendors from being stored on the site itself.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> Many sites use Bitcoin multisig<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> transactions to improve security and reduce dependency on the site's escrow. The Helix Bitcoin tumbler offers direct anonymized marketplace payment integrations.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

On making a purchase, the buyer must transfer cryptocurrency into the site's escrow, after which a vendor dispatches their goods then claims the payment from the site. On receipt or non-receipt of the item users may leave feedback against the vendor's account. Buyers may "finalize early" (FE), releasing funds from escrow to the vendor prior to receiving their goods in order to expedite a transaction, but leave themselves vulnerable to fraud if they choose to do so.<ref name="dic">Template:Cite web</ref>

Following Operation Onymous, there was a substantial increase in PGP support from vendors, with PGP use on two marketplaces near 90%. This suggests that law enforcement responses to cryptomarkets result in continued security innovations, thereby making markets more resilient to undercover law enforcement efforts.<ref name="pgp">Template:Cite journal</ref>

Market types[edit]

Items on a typical centralized darknet market are listed from a range of vendors in an eBay-like marketplace format.<ref name="deepdotweb.com">Template:Cite web</ref> Virtually all such markets have advanced reputation, search and shipping features similar to Amazon.com.<ref name="jane" />

Some of the most popular vendors are now opening up dedicated own online shops separate from the large marketplaces.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Individual sites have even returned to operating on the clearnet, with mixed success.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

Some internet forums such as the defunct Tor Carding Forum<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> and the Russian Anonymous Marketplace function as markets with trusted members providing escrow services and users engaging in off-forum messaging.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In May 2014 the "Deepify" service attempted to automate the process of setting up markets with a SAAS solution;<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> however, this closed a short time later.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Following repeated problems associated with centralised infrastructure, a number of decentralised marketplace software alternatives have arisen using blockchain or peer-to-peer technologies, including OpenBazaar,<ref name="blog.openbazaar.org"/> Bitmarkets,<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>, Nxt,<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> and Particl.<ref name="https://particl.io"/>

Vendors[edit]

To list on a market, a vendor may have undergone an application process via referral, proof of reputation from another market or given a cash deposit to the market.<ref name="deepdotweb.com"/>

Many vendors list their wares on multiple markets, ensuring they retain their reputation even should a single market place close. Grams have launched "InfoDesk" to allow central content and identity management for vendors as well as PGP key distribution.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref name="pgp" />

Meanwhile, individual law enforcement operations regularly investigate and arrest individual vendors<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> and those purchasing significant quantities for personal use.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

A February 2016 report suggested that a quarter of all DNM purchases were for resale.<ref name="febEMCDDA" />

Products[edit]

File:Evolution vendor category relationships.png
An analysis of the defunct Evolution marketplace shows the different types of products and vendors on a market<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Drugs[edit]

Template:Main Whilst a great many products are sold, drugs dominate the numbers of listings, with the drugs including cannabis, MDMA, modafinil,<ref name=C>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> LSD, cocaine, and designer drugs.

Personal information[edit]

Personally identifying information, financial information like credit card and bank account information, and medical data from medical data breaches is bought and sold, mostly in darknet markets but also in other black markets.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> People increase the value of the stolen data by aggregating it with publicly available data, and sell it again for a profit, increasing the damage that can be done to the people whose data was stolen.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

Fraud and hacking services[edit]

Template:Main Cyber crime and hacking services for financial institutions and banks have also been offered over the dark web.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> Markets such as AlphaBay Market would go on to host a significant share of the commercial fraud market, featuring carding, counterfeiting and many related services.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> Loyalty card information is also sold as it is easy to launder.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

Prohibitions and restrictions[edit]

Many markets will refuse to list weapons<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> or poisons.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> Markets such as the original Silk Road would refuse to list anything where the "purpose is to harm or defraud, such as stolen credit cards, assassinations, and weapons of mass destruction".<ref name="one">Template:Cite news</ref>

Later markets such as Evolution would ban "child pornography, services related to murder/assassination/terrorism, prostitution, Ponzi schemes, and lotteries", but allow the wholesaling of credit card data.<ref name="evo"/>

The firearms market appears to attract extra attention from law enforcement<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> as well as other weapons such as certain types of knives and blades.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

Market operations[edit]

Nachash, former proprietor of Doxbin wrote a guide in early 2015 entitled So, You Want To Be a Darknet Drug Lord ...<ref>Template:Cite news</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

Background research tasks included learning from past drug lords, researching legal matters, studying law enforcement agency tactics and obtaining legal representation. With regards to the prospective market's hosting, he recommends identifying a hosting country with gaps in their mutual legal assistance treaty with one's country of residence, avoiding overpriced bulletproof hosting and choosing a web host with Tor support that accepts suitably hard-to-trace payment. Patterns recommend to avoid include hiring hitmen like Dread Pirate Roberts and sharing handles for software questions on sites like Stack Exchange.

He advises on running a secured server operating system with a server-side transparent Tor proxy server,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> hardening web application configurations, Tor-based server administration, automated server configuration management rebuild and secure destruction with frequent server relocation rather than a darknet managed hosting service.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite news</ref> To protect against guard node deanonymisation he recommends obfuscating traffic by investing in Tor relays which the market site will exclusively use.

For a local machine configuration he recommends a computer purchased in cash running Linux using a local Tor transparent proxy. For OPSEC he suggests avoiding storing conversation logs, varying writing styles, avoiding mobile phone based tracking and leaking false personal details to further obfuscate one's identity. Use of OTR and PGP are recommended.

He recommends verifying market employees carefully and to weed out law enforcement infiltration through barium meal tests.

Fraudulent markets[edit]

A large number of services pretend to be a legitimate vendor shop, or marketplace of some kind in order to defraud people. These include the notoriously unreliable gun stores,<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> or even fake assassination websites.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

Exit scams[edit]

File:Darknet market exit scam model.png
Graphical illustration of the life-cycle of vendors<ref name="reputation" />

Centralised market escrow means that an individual market may close down and "exit" with the buyer's and vendor's cryptocurrency at any given time. This has happened on several occasions such as with BlackBank<ref name="blackbank" /> and most notoriously Evolution<ref name="evo" /> who pocketed $12 million of escrowed coins.

Individual vendors often reach a point of reputation maturity whereby they have sold sufficient product to have accumulated both significant reputation and escrowed funds, that many may choose to exit with those funds rather than compete at the higher-volume higher-priced matured product level.<ref name="reputation">Template:Cite journal</ref><ref name="vice">Template:Cite web</ref>

Commentary[edit]

In December 2014, an exhibition by Carmen Weisskopf and Domagoj Smoljo entitled "The Darknet: From Memes to Onionland" explored Darknet culture. This featured a bot called the "Random Darknet Shopper" which spent $100 in BTC per week on products listed on Agora.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> Their aim was to explore the ethical and philosophical implications of these markets, which, despite high-profile internationally co-ordinated raids, persist and flourish.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

James Martin's 2014 book Drugs on the Dark Net: How Cryptomarkets are Transforming the Global Trade in Illicit Drugs discusses some vendors who are even branding their opium or cocaine as "fair trade", "organic" or sourced from conflict-free zones.<ref name="palgrave.com">Template:Cite web</ref> In June 2015 journalist Jamie Bartlett gave a TED talk about the state of the darknet market ecosystem as it stands today.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

According to 2014 studies by Martin<ref name="crj.sagepub.com">Template:Cite journal</ref><ref name="palgrave.com"/> Aldridge & Décary-Hétu<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> and a January 2015 report from the Global Drug Policy Observatory, many harm reduction trends have been spotted. These include the reduced risks associated with street dealing such as being offered hard drugs. The vendor feedback system provides accountability for risks of mixing and side effects and protection against scammers. Online forum communities provide information about safe drug use in an environment where users can anonymously ask questions. Some users report the online element having a moderating affect on their consumption due to the increased lead time ordering from the sites compared to street dealing.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Professor for addiction research Heino Stöver notes that the shops can be seen as a political statement, advancing drug legalization "from below".<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> The results of these markets are higher quality and lower prices of psychoactive substances as well as a lower risk of violent incidents.<ref name=orf1>Template:Cite web</ref> A number of studies suggest that markets such as Silk Road may have helped users reduce the harm caused by illicit drug use, particularly compared with street-based drug marketplaces. Examples include the sale of high-quality products with low risk for contamination (including lacing and cutting), vendor-tested products, sharing of trip reports, and online discussion of harm reduction practices. Some health professionals such as "DoctorX" provide information, advice and drug-testing services on the darknet.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The quality of products is attributed to the competition and transparency of darknet markets<ref name=orf1/> which involve user feedback and reputation features.

Europol reported in December 2014, "We have lately seen a large amount of physical crime move online, at least the 'marketing' and delivery part of the business ... [Buyers can] get the illegal commodity delivered risk-free to a place of their choice by the mailman or a courier, or maybe by drone in the future, and can pay with virtual currency and in full anonymity, without the police being able to identify either the buyer or the seller."<ref name="jane">Template:Cite news</ref>

In June 2015 the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) produced a report citing difficulties controlling virtual market places via darknet markets, social media and mobile apps.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In August 2015 it was announced that Interpol now offers a dedicated Dark Web training program featuring technical information on Tor and cybersecurity and simulated darknet market takedowns.

In October 2015 the UK's National Crime Agency and GCHQ announced the formation of a "Joint Operations Cell" to focus on cybercrime.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> In November 2015 this team would be tasked with tackling child exploitation on the dark web as well as other cybercrime.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

In February 2015, the EMCDDA produced another report citing the increased importance of customer service and reputation management in the marketplace, the reduced risk of violence and increased product purity. It estimated a quarter of all purchases were for resale and that the trend towards decentralisation meant they are unlikely to be eliminated any time soon.<ref name="febEMCDDA">Template:Cite news</ref>

A June 2016 report from the Global Drug Survey described how the markets are increasing in popularity, despite ongoing law enforcement action and scams. Other findings include consumers making purchases via friends operating Tor browser and Bitcoin payments, rather than directly. Access to markets in 79% of respondents' cases led to users trying a new type of drug.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>

Size of listings[edit]

The size of the darknet markets economy can be problematic to estimate. A study based on a combination of listing scrapes and feedback to estimate sales volume by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University captured some of the best data. A reviewed 2013 analysis put the Silk Road grossing $300,000 a day, extrapolating to over $100 million over a year. Subsequent data from later markets has significant gaps as well as complexities associated with analysing multiple marketplaces.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

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In fiction[edit]

In the episode "eps2.3_logic-b0mb.hc" (ep. 5 of season 2) of the drama–thriller television series, Mr. Robot, the protagonist, Elliot, is supposed to be repairing a Tor hidden site which turns out to be a darknet market called "Midland City" styled after the Silk Road for the sale of guns, sex trafficked women, rocket launchers, drugs and hitmen for hire.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

In the 2016 movie Nerve starring Emma Roberts and Dave Franco, the dark web plays a major role.

In Grand Theft Auto Online, players who purchase warehouses and garages for illicit cargo and stolen cars can buy/steal and sell them through trade on the "SecuroServ" syndicate website. After the Biker DLC, players can now purchase buildings for illegal drugs and counterfeit products manufacture, and distribute them through a darknet website called "The Open Road" where law enforcement cannot be notified of the player's trade.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Template:Reflist

External links[edit]


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